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DUE SEPT. 3, 2023 @6PM

The purpose of this assignment is to have students evaluate sociological research design in
terms of validity, reliability, and appropriate research methodology by identifying flaws and proposing
solutions to those flaws. Students will also demonstrate their sociological understanding of groups and

In this section, we present the results of a rather poorly designed sociology study that investigated
group leadership dynamics. The study suffered from significant methodological flaws, limiting the
reliability and generalizability of the findings. The researcher chose a small convenience sample from
personal friends. The sample had 8 women and 3 men. Participants were given a brief questionnaire
with open-ended questions and no survey. None of the participants was a group leader themselves.
Each participant defined “group” and “leadership” according to their own personal understanding of the
terms. Despite these limitations, the study reported some preliminary observations, which should be
interpreted with caution.
1. Group Leadership Styles The study explored different leadership styles observed within groups.
Based on self-report questionnaires, participants reported a mix of authoritarian, democratic,
and laissez-faire leadership styles in their groups. No definitions of these leadership styles were
provided to participants.
2. Communication Patterns Participants provided anecdotal evidence of various communication
patterns within their groups. Some groups reported open and effective communication,
fostering collaboration and decision-making. Conversely, others mentioned challenges with
communication, such as dominance of certain members or lack of participation. (Anecdotal
evidence is personal stories that are collected because they seem interesting and related to the
3. Group Cohesion The study assessed group cohesion by asking participants to describe their
perceived sense of unity and cooperation within their groups. The results indicated a range of
experiences, with some groups reporting high levels of cohesion and others reporting low levels.
4. Impact of Leadership on Group Performance Participants were asked about the perceived
impact of leadership on group performance. While some participants believed that effective
leadership positively influenced group outcomes, others reported no significant relationship
between leadership and performance. There was no standardized measurement of
5. Gender and Leadership The study explored the potential influence of gender on leadership
dynamics within the groups. participants provided subjective accounts of gender-related
experiences in the workplace, including stereotypes and biases they think might impact
leadership roles.

Overall, the results of this study provide only preliminary and inconclusive insights into group leadership
dynamics. Future research with improved methodological rigor is necessary to deepen our
understanding of group leadership and its impact on various outcomes.

In at least 750 words, address all the following in essay format:
1. Identify 3 flaws in the research design that might impact validity, reliability, and generalizability of the
research outcomes. Explain why they are flaws. Define all terms and concepts.
2. For each of the flaws identified in the first question, describe how the research design could be
improved to address and eliminate that flaw.
3. What do you think would be a good way to study group leadership dynamics? What aspects of groups
and leadership do you think are the most important to study? What specific research methodologies
would you choose?